Soal, Jawaban, dan Materi Sekolah dari SD sampai Universitas

Grammar Reference – PAST SIMPLE and PRESENT PERFECT



PAST SIMPLE

1.       We use the past simple to refer to events that took place in the past.

-          A pharmacist called John Pemberton invented Coca-cola.
-          ‘Did you go to Berlin last week?’
‘Yes, and I met Herr Gnuchtel.’

2.       We frequently use a time adverb to situate the event in finished past time.

-          Rolls Royce went bust in 1973.
-          A few years ago, the City Plaza Hotel was a leader in its segment of the market.
-          Many people lost a lot of money on the stock market during 2008 and 2009.

3.       We use the pas simple in annual reports to describe the company’s performance over the last year.

-          Last year was a good year for our group. Sales rose by more than 11%, and we made substantial gains in market share in a number of countries.



PRESENT PERFECT

1.       We use the present perfect to say that a finished pas action is relevant now.

-          The have developed a new brand of toothpaste.
-          The chairman has recently resigned.

2.       We use the present perfect when we are thinking of a period of time contunuing up to the present.

-          For over 50 years, Stirling Cars has developed classic sports cars.
-          Calvin Klein has been one of the leading fashion designers since the mid-1970s.

3.       We often use this tense to talk about our life experiences.

-          She has had a number of interesting jobs.
-          He’s worked for a variety of firms.

Grammar Reference - NOUN COMBINATIONS



1.       We use ‘s to express a relationship between a person or organization and another person or thing.

-          Mr. Blake’s secretary.
-          Her husband’s car BA’s employees
-          Volvo’s reputation

The ‘s very often means that the relationship can be expressed using have.
-          Mr. Blake has a secretary.
-          Volvo has a reputation.


2.       When two nouns are used together, the first noun functions as an adjective and describes the second noun.
-          A business card
-          A job description
-          An office complex
-          A travel agency

Sometimes three or more nouns occur together.
-          A company credit card (a credit card issued by a company)
-          A management training programme (a training programme designed for management)

3.       Two nouns are joined by of when the ideas are more abstract.
-          The cost of living
-          Independence of mind
-          The joy of working and lifelong learning

4.       Some compound nouns are written as one word.
-          Database
-          Letterhead
-          Answerphone
-          Headquarters

5.       When compound nouns are used with a number in expressions of measurement, the first noun is singular.
-          A six-lane motorway
-          A four-day week